Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür

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Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür
Tianyuan Emperor of Yuan
Emperor of the Great Yuan
Emperor of Northern Yuan dynasty
ReignMay 1378 – November 1388
CoronationMay 1378
PredecessorBiligtü Khan Ayushiridara
SuccessorJorightu Khan Yesüder
Died18 November 1388(1388-11-18) (aged 46)
Tuul River, Outer Mongolia
Mongolian: ᠲᠥᠭᠥᠰᠲᠥᠮᠥᠷ
Chinese: 脫古思帖木兒
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür
Era dates
Xuanguang (宣光) 1378–1379
Tianyuan/Tianguang (天元/天光) 1379–1388
Posthumous name
Emperor Ningxiao (寧孝皇帝)
Temple name
DynastyNorthern Yuan dynasty
FatherUkhaghatu Khan Toghon Temür

Uskhal Khan (Chinese: 兀思哈勒汗), also called the Last Lord of Northern Yuan (Chinese: 北元末主)[2] or by his era name the Tianyuan Emperor (Chinese: 天元帝), born Tögüs Temür (Chinese: 脫古思帖木兒; 7 March 1342 – 18 November 1388 (1342-03-07 – 1388-11-18)), was an emperor of the Northern Yuan dynasty, reigning from 1378 to 1388. He was the last powerful khan of the Mongols until the reign of the Dayan Khan.[3]

Tögüs Temür was Biligtü Khan's younger brother and son of Toghon Temür, the last Yuan emperor in China proper. Before ascending to the Northern Yuan throne, he held the noble title of Prince of Yi (益王).[4] He succeeded to the throne with the title of Uskhal Khan (Усхал хаан) after Biligtü Khan died in 1378. During the funeral of the late king, the Ming court sent an embassy to participate in it and released the Mongol prince, Maidarbal, who had been captured at the battle of Yingchang in 1378.

Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür mobilized troops near Yingchang and Karakorum.[5] He continued to press the Ming from the north, cooperating with Naghachu of the Jalayir in Manchuria. The Ming launched a massive attack on the Northern Yuan in return in 1380, sacking Karakorum.

The Ming army crushed the Mongol garrison under Iliyasan in North China in June 1380. Uskhal Khan's commanders, Öljei-Buqa and Nair-Buqa, invaded Lulun city, killing the Ming officer Liu Guang in the same year. The Ming dispatched a large army against the Mongols the next year.

The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty decided to exterminate Naghachu's force in Manchuria in 1387 and two sides suffered heavier losses at a battle near Changchung city. Tögüs Temür suddenly faced a predicament in 1387 when Naghachu surrendered to the Ming due to a devastating famine. The Ming now turned their attention to the Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür who lived in Yingchang. In 1388, he was raided by the Ming on the Buir Lake. In his escape to Karakorum, he was suddenly attacked and defeated on the Tuul River by Yesüder, a descendant of Ariq Böke, who allied with the Oirats.[6] Yesüder's general killed the king and his son. Uskhal Khan had intended to flee westwards to join his commander Markhas. This event marked the decline of the Kublaid power and the rise of the Oirats in Mongolia.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sh.Tseyen-Oidov – Chinggis bogdoos Ligden khutaghtu hurtel (khaad), p. 129.
  2. ^ 郑天挺 [Zheng Tianting], 吴泽 [Wu Ze], 杨志玖 [Yang Zhijiu] (2007). 中國歷史大辞典: A-J [Comprehensive Dictionary of Chinese History: A-J] (in Chinese). 上海辞书出版社 [Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House]. p. 589.
  3. ^ Denis Crispin Twitchett; John King Fairbank (Ed.). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8, p. 227.
  4. ^ Wang [王], Shizhen [世貞]. 《北虏始末志》.
  5. ^ L. Jamsran-Mongol ulsyin tuuh, vol. III, p. 28.
  6. ^ Reuven Amitai-Preiss, Reuven Amitai, David Morgan-The Mongol empire and its legacy, p. 293.
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür
 Died: 1388Borjigit 1.png
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Biligtü Khan, Emperor Zhaozong
Emperor of the Northern Yuan dynasty
Succeeded by
None, Jorightu Khan Yesüder as Khan