List of rulers of Cappadocia

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This article lists the Achaemenid satraps and Hellenistic kings of Cappadocia, an ancient region in central Anatolia.

Satraps of Cappadocia, c. 380–331 BC[edit]

The Satrapy of Capadocia was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire until its conquest by Alexander the Great in 331 BC.

Independent Princes of Cappadocia, 331 BCE–the 250s BCE[edit]

The hitherto satrap, Ariarathes I managed to keep control of most or all Cappadocia, as independent prince leading the resistance against conquerors, even after Alexander the Great's conquest of the Persians; however, in 322 BC, he was crucified by Perdiccas, Alexander's general and (after Alexander's death) regent.

  • temporary suppression of independence, governors of Macedon Empire held the country
    • governor Eumenes
    • diadoch Antigonos, firstly satrap of Phrygia and then Regent. He was killed in Ipsos in 301 BCE.

Perdiccas gave Cappadocia to Eumenes, Alexander's former secretary. However, during the instability of the ongoing civil wars between Alexander's generals, Eumenes was killed, and then the regent Antigonos was killed.

Ariarathes I's adopted son, Ariarathes II, managed to re-secure some of his inheritance, namely the mere Upper Cappadocia around Mazaca, and became Prince of Cappadocia (while accepting Seleucid suzerainty). The Lower Cappadocia was lost forever to Kingdom of Pontos which emerged since 301 BCE in the coast of Black Sea, and proclaimed Kingdom in circa 281 BCE.

Kingdom of Cappadocia, the 250s BC–17 AD[edit]

Possibly continuing a while under weak Seleucid suzerainty, title recognized as Kings:

Family tree of kings of Cappadocia[edit]

Camissares
satrap of Cappadocia
Datames
satrap of Cappadocia
Ariamnes
satrap of Cappadocia
ARIARATHIDS
Ariarathes I
satrap 350-331 BC, later
king of Cappadocia
331-322 BC
Holophernes
Ariarathes II
king of Cappadocia
301-280 BC
Antiochus II Theos
Ariamnes
king of Cappadocia
280-230 BC
Seleucus II Callinicus
Ariarathes III
king of Cappadocia
255-220 BC
Stratonice
daughter of
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus III the Great
Ariarahes IV
king of Cappadocia
220-163 BC
Antiochis
Stratonice
∞ 1.Eumenes II of Pergamon
2.Attalus II of Pergamon
Orophernes Nicephorus
king of Cappadocia
157 BC
Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator
king of Cappadocia
163-130 BC
Nyssa
daughter of
Pharnaces I of Pontus
Mithridates V
king of Pontus
Ariarathes VI Epiphanes Philopater
king of Cappadocia
130-116 BC
LaodiceMithridates VI
king of Pontus
MonimeAriobarzanes I Philoromaios
king of Cappadocia
95-c.63 BC
ARIOBARZANIDS
Athenais Philostorgos I
Nysa
Nicomedes III of Bithynia
Ariarathes VII Philometor
king of Cappadocia
116-101 BC
Ariarathes VIII Epiphanes
king of Cappadocia
101-96 BC
(illeg.) Ariarathes IX Eusebes Philopator
king of Cappadocia
101-96 BC
Athenais Philostorgos IIAriobarzanes II Philopator
king of Cappadocia
c.63-c.51 BC
Isias Philostorgos
Antiochus I of Commagene
Ariobarzanes III
king of Cappadocia
51-c.42 BC
Ariarathes X Eusebes Philadelphos
king of Cappadocia
c.42-36 BC