List of state leaders in the 19th century (1801–1850)

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Lists of state leaders by century:
See also:
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
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Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

This is a list of state leaders in the 19th century (1801–1850) AD, except for the leaders within British south Asia and its predecessor states, and those leaders within the Holy Roman Empire.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 19th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Leaders of constituent states within the Holy Roman Empire, are excluded up to the time of German mediatisation (1801–1806), and found on this list of leaders in the 19th-century Holy Roman Empire.

Africa[edit]

Africa: Central[edit]

Angola

  • Malenge a Ngonga, King (1792–c.1810)
  • Kitumba kya Ngonga, King (c.1810–1820)
  • Kansanje kya Kambolo, King (c.1820s)
  • Kihengo kya Kambolo, King (early 1830s)
  • Kamasa ka Kiwende, King (mid 1830s)
  • Mbumba a Kinguri, King (c.1840–1850)
  • Kalunga ka Kisanga, King (1850)
  • unknown son of Ana III, King (1810–?)
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

German colony, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe

Central African Republic

Chad

  • ‘Abd ar-Rahman Gawrang, Mbangi (1785–1806)
  • Malam Ngarmaba Bira, Mbangi (1806)
  • ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi (1806–1807)
  • Malam Ngarmaba Bira, Mbangi (1807)
  • ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi (1807)
  • Muhammad III, Mbangi (1807)
  • ‘Uthman Burkomanda III al-Kabir, Mbangi (1807–1846)
  • ‘Abdul Qadir II al-Mahdi, Mbangi (1846–1858)
  • Muhammad Salih Derret ibn Jawda, Kolak (1795–1803)
  • Abd al-Karim Sabun, Kolak (1803–1813)
  • Muhammad Busata ibn ‘Abd al-Karim, Kolak (1813–1813)
  • Yusuf Kharifayn ibn ‘Abd al-Qadir, Kolak (1813–1829)
  • Raqib ibn Yusuf ‘Abd al-Qadir, Kolak (1829–1829)
  • Muhammad ‘Abd al-‘Aziz Dhawiyi ibn Radama (1829–1835)
  • Adham ibn Muhammad ‘Abd al-‘Aziz, Kolak (1835–1835)
  • ‘Izz ad-Din Muhammad al-Sharif ibn Salih Derret, Kolak (1835–1858)

Congo: Belgian; today, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Kata Mbula, Nyim (1776–1810)
  • Mikope Mbula, Nyim (1810–1840)
  • Bope Mobinji, Nyim (1840–1885)

Congo: French; today, the Republic of the Congo

Equatorial Guinea

Colony, 1778–1968
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Gabon

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: East[edit]

Great Lakes area

Burundi
Kenya
Independence disputed with Oman
Omani Suzerainty
Nabahani dynasty
Rwanda
South Sudan
  • Nyokwejø, Rädh (c.1780–1820)
Tanzania
Uganda

Horn of Africa area

Djibouti
Eritrea
Ethiopia
  • Mijyu, Moti (?–c.1820)
  • Abba Manno, Moti (c.1820–c.1840)
  • Abba Bagibo, Moti (early 19th century)
  • Abba Rebo, Moti (?–1856)
  • Adam, Moti, Founder (late 18th century)
  • Oncho, Moti (c.1810)
  • Jawe, Moti (c.1840–1854)
  • Hoti Gaocho or Beshi Sheroch, King (1798–1821)
  • Gaha Nechocho or Gali Sheroch, King (1821–1845)
  • Gawi Nechocho or Haji Ginoch, King (1845–1854)
  • Bofo, Abba Gomoli I, Supera (1800–1825)
  • Ibsa, Abba Bagibo, Supera (1825–1861)
  • Amado, Kawa (1800–1835)
  • Damota, Kawa (1835–1845)
  • Gobe, Kawa (1845–1886)
Somalia
  • Suldaan Maxamuud "Xawaadane" Suldaan Yuusuf Suldaan Cali, King (?–1815)
  • Suldaan Cismaan "Bah-Dir" Suldaan Maxamuud Suldaan Yuusuf, King (1815–1842)
  • Suldaan Yuusuf "Bah-Yaaquub" Suldaan Maxamuud Suldaan Yuusuf, King (1842–1844)
  • Suldaan Maxamuud Suldaan Cismaan Suldaan Maxamuud, King (1844–1860)
  • Garaad Mohamud Ali, Sultan (1789–1830)
  • Garaad Aul, Sultan (1830–1870)
Protectorate, 1884–1940, 1941–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Indian Ocean

Comoros
  • Ramanetaka, Sultan (1830–1842)
  • Ravao, Tsivandini, Regent (1842–1849)
  • Djoumbé Fatima, Queen/Sultan (1842–1865, 1874–1878)
Madagascar
  • Ravahiny, Queen (c.1778–1808)
  • Tsimalomo, King (1808–c.1822)
  • Maka (Andrianaresy), (pretender) King (1808)
  • Andriantsoly, King (1822–1832)
  • Oantitsy, Regent (f) (1828–1829)
  • Oantitsy, Queen (1832–1836)
  • Tsiomeko, Queen (1836–1840)
Mauritius
French colony, 1715–1810
For details see France under western Europe
Colony, 1810–1968
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Seychelles
Part of British Mauritius, 1811–1903
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northcentral[edit]

Libya

Tunisia

Africa: Northeast[edit]

Egypt

Sudan

  • Abakr I, Mukūk (1800–1820)
  • Umar II, Mukūk (1800–1835)
  • Ahmad, Mukūk (1835–1840)
  • Maryud, Mukūk (1840–1843)
  • Nasir, Mukūk (1843–c.1860)

Africa: Northwest[edit]

Algeria

Vassal state, 1515–1830
For details see the Ottoman Empire under west Asia
French Départements, 1830–1962
For details see France under western Europe

Morocco and Western Sahara

Africa: South[edit]

Botswana

Eswatini/ Swaziland

Lesotho

Malawi

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Namibia

  • Shimwemwe (1785–1805)

South Africa

British colony, 1795–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1843–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Zambia

Zimbabwe

  • Changamire Dhafa, King (c.1790–1824)
  • Changamire Baswi, King (c.1825)
  • Changamire Chirisamuru II, King (c.1828–1831)
  • Changamire Tohwechipi Zharare, King (1831–1866)[12]

Africa: West[edit]

Benin

  • Akengbuda, Oba (1750–1804)[13]
  • Obanosa, Oba (1804–1816)
  • Ogbebo, Oba (1816)
  • Osemwende, Oba (1816–1848)
  • Adolo, Oba (1848–1897)
See also Ovonramwen
Vassal of the Oyo Empire, 1740–1823
  • Huffon, Ahosu (1794–1807)
  • Ajohan, Ahosu (1807–1816)
  • Toyi, Ahosu (1816–1818)
  • Hueze, Ahosu (1818–1828)
  • Toyon, Ahosu (1828–1836)
  • Meyi, Ahosu (1836–1848)
  • Sodji, Ahosu (1848–1864)
  • Ajibolu, Oba of Ketu (1795–1816)

Burkina Faso

  • Baalisongi, King (?)[14]
  • Yencaari, King (c.1801–c.1809)[15][16]
  • Kalinkuma, King (?)[14]
  • Yenbuado, King (1818–?)[17]
  • Yensombu, King (?)[14]
  • Yentugri, King (?)[14]
Buricimba Dynasty
  • Gmarba, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Wori, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Gamambu, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Pangangri, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Mabungu, ruler (c.19th century)
  • Bandigoo, ruler (19th century)
  • Magan Wule Wattara, ruler (1749–1809)
  • Dramani, ruler (1809–1809)
  • Dyori Wattara, ruler (1809–1839)
  • Bako Moru Wattara, ruler (1839–1851)
  • Brahima bi Saydu, Ja-oro (1758–1810)
  • Brahima bi Saydu, Almami (1810–1817)
  • Salifu bi Hama, Almami (1817–1832)
  • Brahima Sori bi Hama, Almami (1832–1861)
  • Yembuaro, Boopo (19th century)
  • Baahamma, Nunbado (1791–1822)
  • Yenhamma, Nunbado (1822–1831)
  • Yencirima, Nunbado (1831–1843)
  • Yencabri, Nunbado (1843–1846)
  • Yempabu, Nunbado (1846–1856)
  • Baahamma, Pielabedo (19th century)
  • Yembuado, Pielabedo (19th century)
  • Yentema, Pielabedo (19th century)
  • Yentagima, Pielabedo (19th century–1836)
  • Yembrima, Pielabedo (1836–1844)
  • Yenkpaari, Pielabedo (1844–1851)
  • Naaba Dulugu, Moogo-naaba (1783–1802)
  • Naaba Sawadogo, Moogo-naaba (1802–1834)
  • Naaba Karfo, Moogo-naaba (1834–1842)
  • Naaba Baongo I, Moogo-naaba (1842–1850)
  • Naaba Kutu I, Moogo-naaba (1850–1871)
  • Rima Naaba Saaga, Yatenga naaba (1787–1803)
  • Rima Naaba Kaongo, Yatenga naaba (1803–1806)
  • Rima Naaba Tuguri, Yatenga naaba (1806–1822)
  • Naaba Koom I, Yatenga naaba (1822–1825)
  • Naaba Korogo, Yatenga naaba (1825–1825)
  • Naaba Ragongo, Yatenga naaba (1825–1831)
  • Naaba Wobgo II, Yatenga naaba (1831–1831)
  • Naaba Nyambe Moogo, Yatenga naaba (1831–1834)
  • Rima Naaba Totebaldbo, Yatenga naaba (1834–1850)
  • Rima Naaba Yemde, Yatenga naaba (1850–1877)

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Gambia

British colony and protectorate, 1821–1965
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Ghana

British colony, 1821–1957
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ivory Coast

  • Biri Kofi Kadyo, Gyaamanhene (1790–1810)
  • Kwadwo Adinkra Kadyo, Gyaamanhene (1810–1820)
  • Fofie, Gyaamanhene (1820–1830)
  • Kwasi Yeboa, Gyaamanhene (1830–1850)
  • Kwadwo Agyeman, Gyaamanhene (1850–1895)

Liberia

  • James Hall, Governor (1834–1836)
  • Oliver Holmes, Jr., Governor (1836)
  • Three-member Committee (1836)
  • John Brown Russwurm, Governor (1836–1851)

Mali

Mauritania

Niger

  • Ahmadou dan Tanimoun, Sultan (1799–1812)
  • Sulayman, Sultan (1812–1822)
  • Ibrahim, Sultan (1843–1851)
  • Fodi Maÿroumfa, Askiya (1798–1805)[19]
  • Tomo, Askiya (1805–1823)
  • Bassarou Missi Izé, Askiya (1823–1842)
  • Boumi, Askiya (1842–1845)
  • Koïzé Babba, Askiya (1845–1864)
  • Zarmakoy Gounabi, King (?)
  • Zarmakoy Amirou, King (?)

Nigeria

  • Modibo Adama, Baban-Lamido (1809–1847)
  • Hamidu bi Adama, Regent (1847–?)
  • Muhammadu Lawal, Baban-Lamido (1847–1872)
  • Ekpenyong Offiong Okoho, King (1786–1805)
  • Ekpenyong Effiom Okoho Eyamba III, King (1805–1814)
  • Effiom Edem Ekpo Effiom I Eyamba IV, King (1814–1834)
  • Edem Ekpenyong Offiong Okoho Eyamba V, King (1834–1847)
  • Effiom Okoho Asibong I Ekpo Minika, King (1849–1852)
  • Opubo Annie Pepple the Great, King (1792–1828)
  • Adumtaye-Bereibibo Adapa Bristol-Alagbariya, King (1828–1830)
  • William Dappa Pepple I, King (1830–1854, 1861–1866)
Sayfawa dynasty[21]
House of Kanemi
  • Shodeke, ruler (1829–1845)
  • Shomoye, Regent (1845–1846, 1862–1868)
  • Okukenu, Regent (1846–1854), Alake (1854–1862)
  • Grand Viziers
  • Muhammadu Bakatsine, Grand Vizier (1807–?)
  • Abdusalami dan Salih Alimi, Emir (1824–1842)
  • Shita dan Salih Alimi, Emir (1842–1860)
  • Kuko Mingi IV, King (1800–1832)
  • Amain Mingi V, King (1832–1846)
  • Kuki, King (1846)
  • Kien Mingi VI, King (1846–1863)
  • Muhammadu Makau, Emir (1804–1825)
  • Jatau "Abu Ja", Emir (1825–1851)
  • Muhammadu Dan Ayi dan Ahmadu Jerabana Albishir, Emir (1799–1829)
  • Ibrahimu dan Muhammadu Dan Ayi, Emir (1829–1835)
  • Jibrilu Gajeren Sarki dan Muhammadu Dan Ayi, Emir (1835–1844)
  • Abu Bakr Jatau dan Mustafa Gazari, Emir (1844–1848)
  • Jibrilu Gajeren Sarki dan Muhammadu Dan Ayi, Emir (1848–1849)
  • Ya`quba dan Jibrilu Gajeren Sarki, Emir (1849–1850)
  • Sulaymanu Dan Addo dan Ibrahimu, Emir (1850–1871)
British colony, 1821–1957
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Senegal

  • Amari Ngone Ndèla Kumba Fal, Damel (1790–1809)
  • Biram Fatma Cub Fal, Damel (1809–1832)
  • Maysa Tènde Jor Samba Fal, Damel (1832–1855)
  • Abdelkedir, Almaami (1776–1804)
  • unknown Almaami (1804–1859)
  • Balleh N'Gougou N'Dao (or Ballé Khordia Ndao), Maad Saloum (1825–1853)[28]
  • Njak Kumba Xuri Yay Mboj, King (1795–1805)
  • Saayodo Yaasin Mboj, King (1805–1810)
  • Kuli Mbaaba Mboj, King (1810–1816)
  • Amar Faatim Mborso Mboj, King (1816–1825)
  • Yerim Mbañik Teg-Rella Mboj, King (1825–1827)
  • Fara Penda Adam Sal Mboj, King (1827–1830)
  • Xerfi Xari Daaro, King (1830–1832)
  • Fara Penda Adam Sal Mboj, King (1832–1833)
  • Xerfi Xari Daaro, King (1833–1835)
  • Fara Penda Adam Sal Mboj, King (1835–1840)
  • Mö Mboj Maalik Mboj, King (1840–1855)[30]

Sierra Leone

  • Farima IV, Bai (1793–1807)
  • Foki, Bai (1807–1817)
  • Moriba Kindo Bangura, Bai (1817–1825)
  • Kunia Banna, Bai (1825–1826)
  • Fatima Brima Kama, Bai-Queen (1826–1840)
  • Moribu Kindo, Bai (1840–1859)
British colony and protectorate, 1808–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Togo

Americas[edit]

Americas: Caribbean[edit]

Antigua

British colony, 1632–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

The Bahamas

British colony, 1648–1973
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Barbados

British colony, 1625–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Cuba

Spanish Colony, 1607–1898
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Dominica

British Colony, 1763–1978
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

British Colony, 1763–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Dominican Republic

Haiti

French Colony, 1625–1804
For details see France in western Europe

Netherlands

Dutch colony 1634–1828, 1845–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Saint Lucia

French colony, 1762–1802
For details see France in western Europe
British colony, 1802–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Trinidad and Tobago

British colony, 1797–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Americas: Central[edit]

Belize

British colony, 1749–1862
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Guatemala

Spanish Colony, 1609–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe
  • Marcelo Molina, President (1838–1840)
  • Fernando Antonio Davila, President (1848)
  • José Velazco, President (1848)
  • Rafael de la Torre, President (1848)
  • Agustín Guzmán, President (1848)
  • Fernando Antonio Martínez, President (1848)

Honduras

Nicaragua

Americas: North[edit]

Canada

British colony, 1610–1907
British colony, 1791–1841
British colony, 1791–1841
British colony, 1841–1867
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mexico

Spainish Colony, 1521–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

United States

Americas: South[edit]

Argentina

Spainish Colony, 1776–1814
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Bolivia

Brazil

Portuguese colony, 1500/1534–1808
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Chile

Spanish Colony, 1541–1818
For details see Spain in southwest Europe
First Government Junta
First National Congress
Provisional Government Junta
Superior Governmental Junta
Supreme Director of Chile
Spanish Colony, 1541–1818
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Colombia

Spainish Colony, 1717–1723, 1739–1810, 1815–1821
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Ecuador

Guyana

British colony, 1814–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Paraguay

Peru

Spainish Colony, 1542–1824
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Suriname

Dutch colony 1667–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Uruguay

Venezuela

Asia[edit]

Asia: Central[edit]

Kazakhstan

Tibet

Manchu overlordship, 1720–1912
For details see the Qing dynasty under Eastern Asia

Uzbekistan

  • Abu al-Ghazi IV, Khan (1790–1802)
  • Abu al-Ghazi V ibn Gha'ib, Khan (1802–1804)
  • Iltazar Inaq ibn Iwaz Inaq, Khan (1804–1806)
  • Muhammad Rahim Bahadur I.(1806–1825)
  • Allah Quli Bahadur, Khan (1825–1842)
  • Muhammad Rahim Quli, Khan (1842–1846)
  • Abu al-Ghazi Muhammad Amin Bahadur, Khan (1846–1855)

Asia: East[edit]

China

Japan

Vassal state of Satsuma Domain, 1609–1872
  • Shō On, King (1795–1802)
  • Shō Sei, King (1802–1803)
  • Shō Kō, King (1804–1828)
  • Shō Iku, Regent (1828–1835), King (1835–1847)
  • Shō Tai, King (1848–1879), Vassal state of the Empire of Japan, 1872–1879

Korea

Asia: Southeast[edit]

Brunei

Cambodia

Protectorate, 1863–1984, part of French Indochina 1887–1953

Indonesia

Dutch colony 1800–1811, 1816–1949
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe
Indonesia: Java
  • Abdul Mofakhir Muhammad Aliuddin I, Sultan (1777–1802)[43]
  • Abdul Fath Muhammad Muhyuddin, Sultan (1802–1805)
  • Abu Nazar Muhammad Isyak, Sultan (1805–1808)
  • Abdul Mofakhir Muhammad Aliuddin II, Sultan (1808–1810)
  • Muhammad Tsafiuddin, Sultan (1810–1811)
  • Pangeran Ahmad, Regent (1811–1813)
  • Muhammad Muhyuddin, Regent (1813–1816)
  • Muhammad Rafiuddin, Sultan (1816–1832)
  • Sepuh VII Joharuddin, Sultan (1791–1816)[44]
  • Sepuh VIII Syamsuddin, Sultan (1816–1819)
  • Anom VI Muhammad Kamaruddin, Sultan (1807–1819)[44]
  • Cirebon IV, Sultan (1808–1810)[44]
  • Cirebon IV, Sultan (1808–1810)[44]
  • Cakraningrat VII, Sultan (1780–1815)[45]
  • Cakraningrat VIII, Sultan (1815–1847)
  • Cakraningrat IX, Sultan (1847–1862)
  • Tirtanegara, Sultan (1767–1811)[46]
  • Natadiningrat, Regent (1804–1810)
  • Paku Nataningrat, Sultan (1811–1854)
  • Aria Cakraadiningrat II, R. Alsana, Sultan (1800–1804)[47]
  • Panembahan Mangku Adiningrat, Sultan (1804–1842)
  • Pangeran Aria Suriokusumo, Sultan (1842–1853)
  • Mangkudiningrat, Sultan (1831)[49]
  • Pangeran Adipati Natapraja, Sultan (1831–1853)
  • Pangeran Prabu Adiningrat, Sultan (1831–1833)[49]
  • Pakualam I, Sultan (1812–1829)[50]
  • Pakualam II, Sultan (1829–1858)
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Tuanku Panglima Gandar Wahid, Sultan (1761–1805)
  • Amaluddin Mangendar, Sultan (1805–1850)
  • Osman Perkasa Alam Shah, Sultan (1850–1858)
  • Kejuruan Hitam (Tuah Hitam), Raja (1750–1818)
  • Ahmad bin Raja Indra Bungsu, Raja (1818–1840)
  • Haji Musa al-Khalid al-Mahadiah Muazzam Shah, Sultan (1840–1893)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Ali Abdul Jalil Syaifuddin Ba'alawi, Sultan (1784–1810)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Ibrahim Abdul Jalil Khaliluddin, Sultan (1810–1815)
  • al-Sayyid al-Sharif Ismail Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin, Sultan (1815–1854)
  • Al-Marhum Kacapuri, Raja (1782–1822)
  • Al-Marhum Besar, Sultan (1822–1851)
  • Ali, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1784–1805)
  • Ja'afar, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1805–1831)
  • Abdul Rahman, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1831–1844)
  • Ali bin Raja Jaafar, Yang di-Pertuan Muda (1844–1857)
  • Jambi Sultanate
    Ratu Seri Ingalaga, Sultan (1790–1812)
    Agung Seri Ingalaga, Sultan (1812–1833)
    Muhammad Fakhruddin, Sultan (1833–1841)
    Abdul Rahman Nazaruddin, Sultan (1841–1855)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Tahmidullah II/Sultan Nata, Sultan (1761–1801)
  • Sulaiman al-Mutamidullah, Sultan (1801–1825)
  • Adam Al-Watsiq Billah, Sultan (1825–1857)
  • Aji Muhammad, Sultan (1777–1817)
  • Muhammad Alimuddin Amirul Muminin Kahharuddin I, Sultan (1817–1861, 1866–1873)
  • Aji Muhammad Salehudin, Sultan (?–1844)
  • Yan Sibo, President (1799–1804)
  • Jiang Wubo, President (1804–1811)
  • Song, President (1811–1823)
  • Liu Taiji, President (1823–1838)
  • Gu Liubo, President (1838–1842)
  • Xie Guifang, President (1842–1843)
  • Ye Tenghui, President (1843–1845)
  • Liu Ganxing, President (1845–1848)
  • Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie, Sultan (1771–1808)
  • Syarif Kasim Alkadrie, Sultan (1808–1819)
  • Syarif Osman Alkadrie, Sultan (1819–1855)
  • Abu Bakar Taj ud-din I, Sultan (1793–1815)
  • Muhammad 'Ali Shafi ud-din I, Sultan (1815–1828)
  • Usman Kamal ud-din, Sultan (1828–1832)
  • Umar Akam ud-din III, Sultan (1832–1846)
  • Abu Bakar Taj ud-din II, Sultan (1846–1854)
  • Sri Paduka Muhammad Qamar ud-din ibni al-Marhum Sultan 'Abdu'l Rashid Muhammad Jamal ud-din, Sultan (1796–1851)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • I Manawari Karaeng Bontolangkasa, Sultan (1778–1810)
  • I Mappatunru/I Mangikarang Karaeng Lembang Parang, Sultan (1816–1825)
  • La Oddanriu Karaeng Katangka, Sultan (1825–1826)
  • Abdul Kadir Moh Aidid, Sultan (1826–1893)
  • La Tenri Peppang, Datu (1778–1810)
  • We Tenri Awaru, Datu (1810–1825)
  • La Oddang Pero, Datu (1825–1854)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
  • Abdul Hamid Muhammad Syah, Sultan (1773–1817)
  • Ismail Muhammad Syah, Sultan (1817–1854)
Indonesia: West Timor
  • Nai Taman, Raja (c.1832)
  • Don Rote Ruatefu, Raja (1774–1802)[51]
  • Kiri Lote, Raja (1803–pre-1832)
  • Koroh Kefi, Raja (pre-1832–1853)
  • Afu Balthazar, Raja (c.1797–pre-1824)
  • Arnoldus Adriaan Karel Loti, Raja (pre-1824–1834)
  • Osu II, Raja (1834–1859)
  • Nai Sobe Sonbai II, Emperor (1808–1867))[52]
  • Nube Bena/ Pieter Nisnoni I, Raja (1798–1820)[52]
  • Isu Baki, Raja (1820s)
  • Ote Nuben Nisnoni, Raja (post-1832)
  • Babkas Nube Nisnoni/ Pieter Nisnoni II, Raja (?–1839)
  • Meis Babkas Nisnoni, Raja (1839–1860)
  • Tobani, Raja (1786–c.1807)
  • Louis, Raja (c.1807–c.1824)
  • Baki, Raja (c.1824–1862)
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
Dutch protectorate 1667–1942
  • Kamarullah, Sultan (1797–1826)[53]
  • Muhammad Hayatuddin Kornabé, Sultan (1826–1861)
British occupation 1799–1802
  • Muhammad Arif Bila, Sultan (1797–1806)[54]
  • Muhammad Asgar, Sultan (1808–1818)
  • Muhammad Hajuddin Syah, Sultan (1818–1825)
Dutch protectorate 1657–1905
  • Nuku, Muhammad al-Mabus Amiruddin Syah, Sultan (1797–1805)[55]
  • Zainal Abidin, Sultan (1805–1810)
  • Muhammad Tahir, Sultan (1811–1821)
  • Al-Mansur Sirajuddin, Sultan (1822–1856)
Dutch protectorate 1683–1915
  • Muhammad Yasin, Sultan (1796–1801)[citation needed]
  • Muhammad Ali, Sultan (1807–1821)
  • Muhammad Sarmoli, Sultan (1821–1823)
  • Muhammad Zain, Sultan (1823–1859)

Laos

  • Somphou, King (1779–1803)
  • Noi, King (1803–1831)
  • Po, King (1848–1865), vassal to Siam and Vietnam
Vassal to Siam (1829–1893)
  • Huy, King (1828–1840)
  • Nark, King (1841–1851)
  • Anourouth, King (1791–1817)
  • Mantha Tourath, Regent (1815–1817), King (1817–1836)
  • Unkeo, Regent (1837–1838)
  • Soukhaseum, King (1838–1851)
Protectorate and constituent of French Indochina (1893–1953)

Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia
  • Ahmaddin Shah, Sultan (1786–1806)
  • Abdul Malik Mansur Shah, Sultan (1806–1825)
  • Abdullah Mu’azzam Shah, Sultan (1825–1830)
  • Shahabuddin Riayat Shah, Sultan (1830–1851)
  • Syed Abu Bakar Harun Jamalullail, Penghulu (1797–1825)[56]
  • Syed Hussein Jamalullail, Penghulu (1825–1843), Raja (1843–1873)
British protectorate, 1895–1942, 1945–1946
British protectorate, 1826–1942, 1945–1946
British protectorate, 1826–1942, 1945–1946
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Malaysian Borneo
British colony, 1848–1890, 1904–1906, 1907–1941, 1945–1946
British colony, 1888–1941, 1945–1946; Crown colony, 1946–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Myanmar / Burma

British colony, 1824–1948
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Philippines

  • Kibad Sahriyal, Sultan (c.1780–c.1805)
  • Kawasa Anwar Ud-din, Sultan (c.1805–c.1830)
  • Untong, Sultan (c.1830–c.1854)
Colony, 1565–1901
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Singapore

British colony as part of the Straits Settlements, 1819–1867
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Thailand

First Kelantanese dynasty
  • Datuk Pengkalan, ruler (1791–1808)
Second Kelantanese dynasty
  • Phraya Long Muhammad Ibni Raja Muda Kelantan/Raja Kampong Laut Tuan Besar Long Ismail Ibni Raja Long Yunus, Sultan (1842–1856)

Timor

Colony, 1702–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Vietnam

  • Po Chong Chan, King (1799–1822)
Tây Sơn dynasty (complete list) –
Nguyễn dynasty (complete list) –
French Colony, 1862–1949
French Protectorate, 1883–1945, 1945–1948
French Protectorate, 1884–1949
For details see France under western Europe

Asia: South[edit]

Afghanistan

Asia: West[edit]

Bahrain

Cyprus

Iran

Iraq

Kuwait

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Turkey

United Arab Emirates: Trucial States

Yemen

  • Daha, Amir (18th century)
  • Yaslam ibn Daha, Amir (?)
  • `Ali ibn Yaslam, Amir (?)
  • Munassar, Sultan (18th century)
  • Farid ibn Munassar, Sultan (?)
  • Hussein, Amir (c.1800–1820)
  • al Habieli, Amir (?)
  • Thaifallah, Amir (?)
  • Shafa`ul al-`Amiri, Emir (early 19th century)
  • Ahmad ibn Shafa`ul al-`Amiri, Emir (early 19th century)
  • al-Hasan ibn Ahmad al-`Amiri, Emir (early 19th century)
  • `Abd al-Hadi ibn al-Hasan al-`Amiri, Emir (early 19th century)
  • Musa`id ibn al-Hasan al-`Amiri, Emir (c.1839)
  • Muhsin ibn Ahmad al-Kathir, Sultan (1800–1830)
  • Ghalib ibn Muhsin al-Kathir, Sultan (1830–1880)
  • Ahmad I ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-'Abdali, Sultan (1791–1827)
  • Muhsin ibn al-Fadl al-'Abdali, Sultan (1827–1839, 1839–1846, 1846–1847)
  • Ahmad II ibn Muhsin al-'Abdali, Sultan (1839–1839, 1847–1849)
  • Sayyid Isma'il ibn al-Hasan al-Husayni, Sultan (1846)
  • 'Ali I ibn Muhsin al-'Abdali, Sultan (1849–1863)
  • Sa`d ibn Taw`ari Ibn `Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (c.1800–1820)
  • Sultan ibn `Amr (on Suqutra), Sultan (c.1834)
  • Ahmad ibn Sultan (at Qishn), Sultan (c.1834)
  • `Amr ibn Sa`d ibn Taw`ari Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (1835–1845)
  • Taw`ari ibn `Ali Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (1845–mid-19th century)
  • Ahmad ibn al-Hadi al-Wahidi, Sultan (1771–1810)
  • `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi, Sultan (1810–1830)
Split into four states
  • Nasir ibn `Abd Allah, Sultan (c.1830)
  • Ahmad ibn Nasir, Sultan (?)
  • Muhsin ibn `Ali, Sultan (?)
  • `Ali ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi, Sultan (1830–?)
  • Muhsin ibn `Ali al-Wahidi, Sultan (1850–1870)
  • al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi, Sultan (1830–1840)
  • `Abd Allah ibn al-Husayn al-Wahidi, Sultan (1850–1870)
  • Ali I ibn Ghalib al-Afifi, ruler (1800–1841)
  • Ahmad ibn Ali al-Afifi, ruler (1841–1873, 1891–1893)
  • Qahtan ibn `Umar ibn Salih Al Harhara, Sultan (c.1800–1810)
  • `Umar ibn Qahtan ibn `Umar Al Harhara, Sultan (c.1810–1815)
  • Qahtan ibn `Umar ibn Qahtan Al Harhara, Sultan (c.1815–1840)
  • `Abd Allah ibn Nasir ibn Salih Al Harhara, Sultan (c.1840–1866)

Europe[edit]

Europe: Balkans[edit]

Croatia

part of the Habsburg Monarchy, also part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown

Greece

  • Otto, King (1832–1862)
British protectorate, 1815–1864
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Kosovo

Montenegro

Serbia

Slovenia

autonomous province of the First French Empire, 1809–1814

Europe: British Isles[edit]

Europe: Central[edit]

Germany/ Prussia

Germany Empire

Austria-Hungary

Habsburg-Lorraine monarchs ruled under numerous simultaneous titles

Bohemia

Liechtenstein

Poland

client republic of France, 1807–1815

Switzerland

Constituent states of the Confederation of the Rhine and German Confederation[edit]

These are leaders of constituent states from the German mediatisation in 1806 until the dissolution of the German Confederation in 1866. Leaders of constituent states within the Holy Roman Empire are excluded up to the time of German mediatisation (1801–1806).

re-united to Anhalt
inherited by Anhalt-Bernburg
merged to Anhalt-Dessau
  • Leopold III, Prince (1751–1758), Duke (1758–1817), Regent of Anhalt-Köthen (1812–1817)
  • Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (1817–1863), of Anhalt-Köthen (1847–1863), of Anhalt (1863–1871), Regent of Anhalt-Köthen (1817–1818)
  • Duchy of Anhalt (Duchy of Anhalt#Dukes of Anhalt, 1863–1918|complete list]]) –
  • Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (1817–1863), of Anhalt-Köthen (1847–1863), of Anhalt (1863–1871), Regent of Anhalt-Köthen (1817–1818)
  • Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1746–1771), of Baden (1771–1803), Elector (1803–1806), Grand Duke (1806–1811)
  • Charles, Grand Duke (1811–1818)
  • Louis I, Grand Duke (1818–1830)
  • Leopold, Grand Duke (1830–1852)
  • George III, Duke (1760–1807, 1813–1820)
  • George IV, Regent (1811–1820), Duke (1820–1823)
  • Louis I, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1790–1806), Grand Duke of Hesse (1806–1830)
  • Louis II, Grand Duke (1830–1848)
  • Louis III, Grand Duke (1848–1877)
  • Charles II, Duke (1794–1815), Grand Duke (1815–1816)
  • George I, Grand Duke (1816–1860)
  • Frederick Augustus, Prince of Nassau-Usingen (1803–1806), Duke of Nassau (1806–1816)
  • William, Princely count of Nassau-Weilburg (1816), Duke of Nassau (1816–1839)
  • Adolphe, Duke (1839–1866)
  • Wilhelm I, Duke (1785–1810), Grand Duke (1815–1823)
  • Peter I, Regent (1785–1823), Grand Duke (1823–1829)
  • Augustus I, Grand Duke (1829–1853)
  • Heinrich LI, Count (1779–1806), Prince (1806–1822)
  • Heinrich LXXII, Prince of Reuss-Ebersdorf (1822–1848), of Reuss-Lobenstein (1824–1848)
  • Frederick Charles Augustus, Count (1803–1813)
  • Wilhelm Friedrich, Prince (1816–1865)
  • Francis Wenceslaus, Altgrave (1769–1811)
  • Charles Joseph, Altgrave (1769–1790), Prince (1790–1811)
  • Konstantin Alexander, Prince (1778–1813)
  • Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1806–1826), of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1826–1844)
  • Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1806–1826), of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1826–1844)
  • Ernest II, Duke (1844–1893)
  • Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1780–1826), of Saxe-Altenburg (1826–1834)
  • Joseph, Duke (1834–1848)
  • Georg, Duke (1848–1853)
  • Frederick I, Duke (1797–1803), Elector (1803–1805), King (1805–1816)
  • William I, King (1816–1864)

Europe: East[edit]

Romania

Russia

Ukraine

1795–1804, kingdom of the Habsburg Monarchy
1804–1918, crownland of the Austrian Empire

Europe: Nordic[edit]

Denmark

Finland

Norway

Sweden

Sweden–Norway

First ministers in Christiania, Norway

Europe: Southcentral[edit]

Italy

Sister republic of France, 1802–1805
Sister republic of France, 1805–1814
  • Napoleon, Sovereign (1814–1815)
client republic of France, 1797–1805
For details see France under western Europe
  • Ferdinand IV, King (1799–1806)
  • Joseph I, King (1806–1808)
  • Joachim I the Dandy King, King (1808–1815)
  • Ferdinand IV, King of Sicily (1759–1816), of Naples (1815–1816), of the Two Sicilies (1816–1825)
  • Ferdinand IV, King of Sicily (1759–1816), of Naples (1815–1816), of the Two Sicilies (1816–1825)
  • Ferdinand I, King of Sicily (1759–1816), of Naples (1815–1816), of the Two Sicilies (1816–1825)
  • Francis I, King (1825–1830)
  • Ferdinand II, King (1830–1859)

Malta

British protectorate, 1800–1813
British colony, 1813–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

San Marino

Vatican City

Europe: Southwest[edit]

Andorra

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West[edit]

Belgium

France

Luxembourg

Monaco

Netherlands

  • William I, Sovereign Prince (1813–1815), King (1815–1840)

Eurasia: Caucasus[edit]

Azerbaijan

  • Javad, Khan (1786–1804)
  • Shaykh Ali Agha, Khan (1791–1806)
  • Husayn, Khan (1806–1816)

Georgia

Russia: Dagestan

  • Umma, Khan (1774–1801)
  • Surkhay ibn Muhammad, Khan (1789–1820)
  • Aslan ibn Shakhmardan, Khan (1820–1836)
  • Nutsal-Aga ibn Aslan, Khan (1836–1836)
  • Muhammad-Mirza ibn Aslan, Khan (1836–1838)
  • Ummu Kulsum-Beke, Khan (1838–1841)
  • Abdurrahman ibn Umar, Khan (1841–1847)
  • Aglar ibn Umar, Khan (1847–1859)

Oceania[edit]

Australia and Papua New Guinea[edit]

Australia

British colony, 1788–1900
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Papua New Guinea

German colony, 1884–1919
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
British protectorate, 1884–1888
British colony, 1888–1902
For details see the United Kingdom under the British Isles, Europe

Pacific[edit]

Chile

  • Te Kena, King (?)
  • Te Tite Anga Henua, King (?)
  • Nga'ara, King (c.1835–pre-1860)

Fiji

French Polynesia

  • Te Oa, son of Te Ariki-tea and Toatau King (?)
  • Te Mateoa (or Mapu-rure), King (?–c.1831)[63]
  • Te Ika-tohora, King (?–c.1824)[63]
  • Te Maputeoa, Gregorio I, King (1830–1857)[64]

New Zealand

British colony, 1841–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Patua-valu, Patu-iki (?)
  • Galiga, Patu-iki (?)
British protectorate, 1888–1901
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Samoa and American Samoa

  • Vai'inupo, Malietoa (?–1841)
  • Malietoa Natuitasina, Malietoa (1841–1858)
  • Seiuli, Manu’a (?)
  • U’uolelaoa, Manu’a (?)
  • Fagaese, Manu’a (?)
  • Tauveve, Manu’a (?)

Solomon Islands

Tonga

Tuvalu

United Kingdom

Became a British colony

United States: Hawaii

Vanuatu

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joyce (M.A.) & Torday (E.), Notes ethnographiques sur les peuples communément appelés Bakuba, ainsi que sur les peuplades apparentées, les Bushongo. Bruxelles 1910; page 17–19
  2. ^ Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia) (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), p. 64.
  3. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxix
  4. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxvif
  5. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  6. ^ [Ta'a, Tesema. "The Process of Urbanization in Wollega, Western Ethiopia: The Case of Neqemte". Journal of Ethiopian Studies 26, no. 1 (1993): 59–72. Accessed April 29, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/41966012. p. 63]
  7. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), pp. lxv – lxvii.
  8. ^ a b c Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (25 February 2003). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. p. 26. ISBN 9780810866041. Retrieved 2014-02-15.
  9. ^ Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History, Volume 2. Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 990. ISBN 9781579584542.
  10. ^ MacMichael, H. A. (1922). "Appendix I: The Chronology of the Fung Kings". A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People Who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Dárfūr. Volume II. Cambridge University Press. p. 431. OCLC 264942362. |volume= has extra text (help)
  11. ^ Holt, Peter Malcolm (1999). "Genealogical Tables and King-Lists". The Sudan of the Three Niles: The Funj Chronicle 910–1288 / 1504–1871. Islamic History and Civilization, 26. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 182–186. ISBN 978-90-04-11256-8.
  12. ^ Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. p. 226. ISBN 0-89950-390-X.
  13. ^ Ben-Amos (1995). The Art of Benin Revised Edition. p. 32.
  14. ^ a b c d Madiéga 1982, p. 123.
  15. ^ Madiéga 1982, p. 117,123.
  16. ^ Delmond, Paul (1949). "Esquisse geographique du Gourra central: Le cercle de Dori (Haute-Volta)". Notes Africaines (43): 57–60.
  17. ^ Madiéga 1982, p. 123,131–132.
  18. ^ Hughes, Arnold and David Perfect. Historical Dictionary of the Gambia. p. 113
  19. ^ Tilho 1911, pp. 505-510 Volume 2.
  20. ^ "Nigeria: Traditional polities". Rulers.Org. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
  21. ^ Dates calculated on the basis of Lange, Diwan, 80-94.
  22. ^ a b c d Slavery and the Birth of an African City. p. 46.
  23. ^ a b c d Ojo, Olatunji; Hunt, Nadine (2012-09-15). Slavery in Africa and the Caribbean: A History of Enslavement and Identity Since the 18th Century. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781780761152.
  24. ^ Mann, Kristin (2007). Slavery and the Birth of an African City: Lagos, 1760-1900. Indiana University Press, 2007. p. 45. ISBN 9780253348845.
  25. ^ a b c d Adewunmi Elegbede. "Kingdoms of Nigeria, The Nigerian Database of Rulers, Kings, Kingdoms, Political and Traditional Leaders". kingdomsofnigeria.com.
  26. ^ a b Slavery and the Birth of an African City.
  27. ^ a b Slavery in Africa and the Caribbean. p. 95.
  28. ^ Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. XV
  29. ^ Diouf, Chronique du royaume du Sine, loc. cit., p. 712-733
  30. ^ Barry, Boubacar, "Le royaume du Waalo": le Sénégal avant la conquête, Karthala, 1985, p 317, ISBN 2865371417
  31. ^ Rosa, Vol. III, pp. 75–114
  32. ^ Rosa, vol. III, pp. 114–129
  33. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 143
  34. ^ Rosa, vol. III, pp. 143–160
  35. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 160
  36. ^ Rosa, vol. III, pp. 161–242
  37. ^ Rosa, vol. III, pp. 242–253
  38. ^ Mendelevich, p. 28
  39. ^ Rosa, vol. V, pp. 73–97
  40. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, pp. 97–117
  41. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, pp. 127–129
  42. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, pp. 129–171
  43. ^ Hall (1981), p. 972; Stokvis, Sultan (1888); Truhart (2003), p. 1228–9..
  44. ^ a b c d Stokvis (1888); Sulendraningrat (1985); Sunardjo (1996), p. 81.
  45. ^ Sutherland (1973–1974).
  46. ^ Nagtegaal (1995); Werdisastra (1996).
  47. ^ Nagtegaal (1996); Sutherland (1973–1974).
  48. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Truhart (2003), p. 1233–4.
  49. ^ a b Stokvis (1888).
  50. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Selayang pandang (1990); Truhart (2003), p. 1234.
  51. ^ L.J. van Dijk, 'De zelfbesturende landschappen in de Residentie Timor en Onderhoorigheden', Indische Gids 47 1925 & 56 1934.
  52. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2008-12-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  53. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  54. ^ The pedigree and chronology of the sultans is only partly known; see Schurhammer, F. (1973–1982) Francis Xavier; His Life, His Times, Vol. I–IV. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute; Jacobs, Hubert (1974–1984) Documenta Malucensia, Vol. I–III. Rome: Jesuit Historical Society; Fraassen, c.van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).
  55. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780–1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  56. ^ "Dato' Yazid Mat, Page 4 and 5".
  57. ^ NEBEZ, Jemal (2017-08-14). Der kurdische Fürst MĪR MUHAMMAD AL-RAWĀNDIZĪ genannt MĪR-Ī KŌRA: Ein Beitrag zur kurdischen Geschichte (in German). epubli. ISBN 978-3-7450-1125-8.
  58. ^ Jwaideh, Wadie (2006-06-19). The Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-3093-7.
  59. ^ Ate, Sabri; Ateş, Sabri (2013-10-21). Ottoman-Iranian Borderlands: Making a Boundary, 1843-1914. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-03365-8.
  60. ^ Azerbaijani Soviet Encyclopedia, Baku, 1983, vol. 7, p. 176
  61. ^ George A. Bournoutian (1998). Russia and the Armenians of Transcaucasia, 1797–1889. p. 516. ISBN 1568590687.
  62. ^ Martijn Theodoor Houtsma; et al. (eds.). "Nakhcuwan". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Publishers. OCLC 8096647.
  63. ^ a b Laval, Newbury & O'Reilly 1968, p. 9.
  64. ^ Laval, Newbury & O'Reilly 1968, p. 578.